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1. The Jewish hat as identifying sign: Jewish elders look on and argue as Saint Matthew writes his gospel above them. The Moscow Gospels, Saxony, ca. 1180. Moscow, Russian State Archives of Old Acts Fonds 1607, Inv. 1, no. 23, fol. 1; formerly Dresden ms. A 94. (Photo: Russian State Archives)

2. The Prophet Abdias. Stavelot Bible, Belgium, 1097. London, BL Add. ms. 28106, fol. 221. (Photo: © The British Library Board)

3. The Prophet Sophonias. Lobbes Bible, Belgium, 1084. Tournai, Bibliothèque du seminaire diocésain ms. 1, fol. 270. (Photo: © KIK-IRPA, Brussels)

4. Saint John the Baptist preaching to Judean Elders. Second Gospel Book of Bernward, Hildesheim, ca. 1015. Dommuseum Hildesheim ms. 18, fol. 75. (Photo: Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Munich)

5. The Last Supper and Judas’s Betrayal. Second Gospel Book of Bernward, Hildesheim, ca. 1015. Dommuseum Hildesheim ms. 18, fol. 118. (Photo: Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Munich)

6. The Three Magi. Second Gospel Book of Bernward, Hildesheim, ca. 1015. Dommuseum Hildesheim, ms. 18, fol. 18. (Photo: Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Munich)

7. King Cepheus in a Phrygian cap, from the Constellation Cepheus. Aratea, Aachen (?), ca. 816. Leiden, Bibliotheek der Rijksuniversiteit ms. Voss Latin Q 79, fol. 26v. (Photo: Bibliotheek der Rijksuniversiteit)

8. Personifications of the Slavs, Germans, Gauls, and Romans pay tribute to Emperor Otto III. Evangeliary of Otto III, Reichenau, ca. 1000. Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek clm 4453, fol. 23v. (Photo: Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Munich)

9. An early rendering of a dying Christ. Bernward Crucifix, Hildesheim, ca. 1007–1022. Dommuseum Hildesheim, DS 6. (Photo: Frank Tomio)

10. The Glory of the Son. Second Gospel Book of Bernward, Hildesheim, ca. 1015. Dommuseum Hildesheim ms. 18, fol. 174. (Photo: Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Munich)

11. Crucifixion with Ecclesia and Synagoga. Ivory plaque, Metz, ninth century. London, Victoria and Albert Museum, Inv. 250-1867. (Photo: V & A Images/The Victoria and Albert Museum, London)
A Larger version of this image can be viewed here.

12. Crucifixion with Sun, Ecclesia, and Life; and Moon, Synagoga, and Death. Uta Codex, Regensburg, ca. 1022. Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliotek clm 13601, fol. 3v. (Photo: Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Munich)

13. Princes of the priests and elders of the people. Reichenau Evangelistary, Reichenau, ca. 1056. Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett ms. 78 A 2, fol. 26v. (Photo: Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett, Staatliche Museen/Volker-H. Schneider/Art Resource, New York)


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